Indoor hot peppers - varieties and features of growing
Capsicum, as a rule, is associated with garden crops in our country. Meanwhile, in our time there are many different varieties of peppers that can be successfully grown on the balcony or even in the apartment. These include hot pepper. Numerous varieties of hot pepper will not only add spice to your everyday dishes, but also decorate the interior with colorful and bright fruits. We will talk about the features of growing hot pepper in room conditions and the best varieties of this plant in the article.
Hot features of hot pepper
Relative of sweet pepper blooms nondescript, but bears fruit exceptionally effectively. The flowers look like potato, but in some hybrids they have a bright rim along the edge of the petals. This is not surprising, because the hot pepper belongs to an extensive family of nightshade.
About the cultivation of sweet pepper at home, read the article "Indoor sweet pepper - grow paprika on the windowsill!"
During fruiting, the shrub is decorated with small, smooth, as if varnished, fruits. Depending on the variety, the peppers are red, orange, yellow, sometimes white and even purple. For the beauty and abundance of fruits, hot peppers are also called Christmas peppers. Outwardly, he really looks like a Christmas tree.
Peppers differ not only in color, but also in shape: alone, like New Year's toys, round; others hang down with bells; while others rush up like candles. And they are all edible! The severity is affected by the ripeness level: on one bush there may be unripe fruits with a spicy taste, as well as extremely sharp, already ripened.
The component that makes the fruits of pepper hot is called capsicin. Hence the name of the plant - capsicum annuum, which translates from Greek as "biting." The name fully characterizes this "temperamental" plant. Although hot pepper is considered an annual crop, it can bloom and bear fruit for more than one season.
The homeland of hot pepper is considered South America. In Mexico, Guatemala and Cuba, its pungency has long been the basis of local dishes. If in the natural environment it grows into a large meter-tall shrub, then miniature varieties no more than half a meter high are bred for indoor floriculture. Varietal hybrids are usually unpretentious to the conditions of detention and are very beautiful during fruiting.
By the way, pronouncing the phrase "pods of hot pepper", we make a mistake. After all, the peppercorn is rather peppercorns, which grows in the form of an evergreen vine, forming clusters of fruits. Interestingly, black peas are extracted from unripe, and white - from ripe pods.
It's funny, but the nightshade family, including hot peppers, is classified as a berry crop. In terms of utility, these berries will give odds to strawberries. They contain a lot of ascorbic acid, as well as potassium, useful for bones. Residents of Asian and South American countries easily eat fresh fruit in the bite with the main course. It is better for people who are not accustomed to witticism to start small, adding grated red pepper during cooking, and eat ripened fruits fresh.
If there are no problems with the stomach, then such a spice is very useful. Hot pepper improves digestion, disinfects food, and also plays the role of a natural flavor enhancer. But people with gastritis, and even more so with ulcerative lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, experiments with hot spices are contraindicated.
Interesting varieties of indoor hot pepper
Bitter indoor pepper will become not only a supplier of burning seasoning for your table, but also a unique interior decoration. The variegation of its fruits adds color to any room, and from the abundance of varieties you can collect a real palette of colors.
The variety is particularly productive and variegated Alladin. Its conical fruitlets are directed upwards and represent the whole gamut of shades: from green and cream to bright raspberry. Harvesting occurs in July-September, its fruits are great for canning.
Hot pepper grade "Small miracle" it has the ability to change the color of fruits as they ripen: from cream to yellow, and then, through purple, to bright red. It is a compact bush up to 30 cm in diameter.
Hot pepper varieties "Bell" It boasts its unusual fruit shape. Red bells hanging from the branches attract attention and become the basis of the flower arrangement. Active fruiting is also observed in July-September.
Exquisite shape and color distinguish the fruits of a miniature variety Yvona. By mid-summer, the bush is decorated with many small crimson fruits, directed upward. Compact and elegant bush (only 25 cm in diameter) looks very beautiful.
In turn, the grade "Elephant trunk" deserves the title of the largest decorative hot pepper. Even at home, it grows to 80 cm, and the fruits reach 27 cm in length. They are dried and pickled, used for decoration.
Chili Pepper Varieties Cordara true to yellow, its golden fruits are also directed upwards. A spectacular composition with it will be a decorative pepper Foxta with bright scarlet fruits. This is a relatively new early ripe variety, the fruits can be removed already green, or bring them to a high degree of ripeness and pungency.
The variety is especially long in fruiting. "Indian summer", the fruits of which are more like miniature tomatoes. Round, bright scarlet at the time of ripeness, they form on the shrub until November. By the way, this variety is most patient in low light conditions.
A whole gamut of shades was collected in just one variety of pepper called "Fireworks". Justifying its name, this pepper is strewn with fruits of varying degrees of ripeness: from green to purple, from yellow and cream to bright red.
Very unusual and beautiful view - semi-ampel variety form Chayen with orange fruits. Small, only 4 cm long fruitlets are suitable for conservation, the bush itself grows up to 30 cm tall, likes a sunny location and periodic pruning.
Another multi-colored hybrid, which is the least whimsical to lighting, is The Queen of Spades. During fruiting, a compact bush is covered with purple and bright red peppers. The fruits are very fragrant and not too sharp.
This is only a small part of the variety of varieties, which can be enumerated endlessly. Gather your collection, maybe you will be able to develop a completely new, unlike anything like hot pepper variety.
Planting and methods for growing hot pepper at room conditions
If you are not averse to adding pepper to your cooking, feel free to choose a variety to your liking and harvest. Growing fruit shrubs is easy, but there are more than enough beauty and benefits from it!
In a closed environment, chili peppers are grown as perennials, or annually the plant is renewed by cuttings. The root system grows very quickly and requires regular transplantation into a larger pot. During this procedure, you can slightly shorten the roots, limiting their growth.
Indoor pepper needs a rich and nutritious substrate based on leafy earth, peat and sand. Biohumus and lowland peat should be present in the composition of the purchased substrate. Heavy garden soil can be diluted with any baking powder, such as sand, and sandstone can be supplemented with peat and compost.
In spring, shrubs can be sheared, having a more compact form and material for reproduction. Cuttings quickly root in water and take root in the ground.
A new instance is easy to grow from seeds. In stores, among the variety of varieties, you can find an option for your liking or get seeds from ripened fruits. As usual, the best time to sow is spring. Seeds, without deepening, are planted in loose and nutritious soil and cleaned in partial shade. Literally in a week seedlings will appear on the surface. Along with garden seedlings, peppers will grow in diffused light until they become crowded in one container. Then they are planted in different containers and gradually accustomed to the sun.
This season, it is already possible to receive fruits from a new shrub. Recruits bloom in 2-3 months, and the speed of fruit formation depends on the temperature of the content. The higher it is, the sooner the fruit ripens. Varieties intended for indoor use do not require cross-pollination. But practice shows that such timely assistance speeds up the process and increases productivity. To do this, pollen is carefully transferred from one flower to another with a brush or cotton swab.
When the active season ends, on the eve of wintering, it is advisable to free the bushes from excess fruit and flowers. In low light conditions, they still will not be able to ripen, but will take away from the plant the strength that it will need in winter.
Chili Pepper Care
Peppers are the real “children of the sun" who simply need the sun's rays. But be careful! Excess chlorophyll adversely affects the appearance and density of foliage. Southeast and southwest windows are best suited for light-loving peppers, where the sun is active during plant safe hours.
Experience shows that additional illumination may well replace sunlight with a deficit. Therefore, in winter it is advisable to arrange artificial lighting for the bushes.
The optimum temperature for hot pepper is about 25 degrees. With a deficit of light, it is important to lower the temperature, given that high temperature in conditions of lack of light negatively affects the appearance and health of the plant.
In winter, the bush is in a state of "drowsiness". During this period, it is important to keep it at a temperature of about 18 degrees under artificial light lamps. Top dressing is stopped, watering is carried out after drying the soil, but spraying, on the contrary, is strengthened to neutralize dry air. If during the winter the bush loses its shape, it can be restored using pruning.
The frequency and abundance of watering also depends on the presence of light. The summer sun accelerates processes, and the roots absorb more moisture. The state of the leaves is easy to navigate: about a lack of moisture, the pepper eloquently signals a loss of leaf turgor. But do not bring the flower to extreme thirst: drying an earthen coma is dangerous for the root system! In winter, when the processes slow down, the soil in the pot may not dry for a long time, therefore it is better to focus on its condition, watering only after drying.
The best summer residence for hot pepper will be a glazed balcony. During the summer growing season, the need for nutrients is so great that you just can not do without additional fertilizing. For these purposes, complex mineral mixtures are suitable, as well as organics in the form of mullein infusion or ash infusion.
Phosphorus-potassium mixtures contribute to the formation of ovaries, and the nitrogen component contributes to the growth of healthy foliage. The hot pepper shrub is susceptible to foliar (foliar) top dressing. Spraying is best done in the evening, alternating it with root dressings. The evening coolness will not allow the beneficial solution to evaporate quickly.
Possible growing problems
During the growth period, the root system very quickly develops a new soil, so pepper can drop leaves and flowers from soil deficiency and nutrition. It is important not to neglect fertilizers during growth and flowering, as well as to stimulate the formation of ovaries through artificial pollination.
Active leaf fall occurs in winter, especially in the stuffiness. Without air circulation, the leaves quickly evaporate moisture and weaken. High temperature in winter with a deficit of light is most harmful for this plant. In such conditions, the bushes grow weak and deformed. Tender foliage of pepper instantly reacts to any changes, be it temperature changes, or excessive watering. The tips of the leaves may darken with excess moisture, and a loss of brightness indicates a lack of trace elements.
In relation to pests, hot peppers are very stable, but nevertheless, with improper care, aphids and spider mites can be affected. If this did not happen during the fruiting period, bio-fungicides, “Fitoferm,” for example, can be used for control. If at the moment when you found pests, your pepper bears fruit and you use its fruits for food, try to fight aphids or spider mites using the same fruits.
Grind a few peppers in a coffee grinder and pour warm water for a day (2-3 peppers about 100 ml of water). Then add liquid soap (for sticking) to the infusion and spray the affected plants. After a day, the procedure must be repeated.
In general, nightshade are unpretentious. Having found a common language with hot indoor pepper, you will begin to understand what exactly this plant needs and correctly evaluate its condition.