Nidularium is the brightest among bromeliads
Among the bromeliads, few plants can be compared in density and splendor of rosettes with nidulariums. Nidularium flowering, as well as repainting of flowering leaves, does not seem very exotic. Inflorescences lie in a funnel on not very long peduncles and amaze with their complex structure. Despite the variety of species, nidulariums are perceived as a surprisingly reliable, simple and elegant plant that can set calm accents in the interior.
- Dazzling Scarlet Nidularium with Spectacular Leaves
- Types of nidulariums for growing in rooms
- Conditions for growing indoor nidulariums
- Nidularium care at home
- Diseases, pests and growing problems
- Propagation of nidularium
Dazzling Scarlet Nidularium with Spectacular Leaves
In the Bromeliad family, almost all plants boast brightly colored bracts, the decorativeness of which exceeds the flowers themselves. In nidularium, this quality is especially pronounced: dazzling scarlet, making inflorescences look like stars, the bracts of this bromeliad seem particularly spectacular. The plant still looks not as exotic as fashionable novelties from among the epiphytes, conquering with harmony and natural elegance.
Nidularia are epiphytes and terrestrial bromeliads creating beautiful thickets, which are most widely represented in nature in tropical Amazonian forests. Most species can be found in Brazil.
The name nidularium received in honor of the special arrangement of inflorescences that hide inside the outlet - from the Latin "nest" - "nidus".
Among nidulariums there are both epiphytes and terrestrial plants, all of them are stemless, characterized by unusual, compact, non-voluminous rhizome and surprisingly dense goblet rosettes of leaves. On average, about 15 leaves are collected in the nidularium outlet, although there are plants that produce them up to forty.
Bright green, with an olive tint, the color of the leaves makes the nidularium very elegant. The leaves are arranged symmetrically, they are linear, lovate or broad-lanceolate, up to 60 cm long with a maximum width of about 4 cm. The pointed edge is more common than the blunt, and the small-sawed edge is sometimes combined with teeth and spikes. The leaves of the nidulariums are very stiff.
Some nidulariums are characterized by the ability to repaint the inner leaves before flowering. Longitudinal stripes on the leaves are not uncommon.
Without exception, all nidulariums produce complex capitate inflorescences. They sit deep in the rosette on peduncles up to 20 cm long, in fact lie on the leaves. Bracts that are closely adjacent to the inflorescence, bright, shorter than the main foliage, effectively stand out from the outlet.
The internal bracts of the nidularium are shorter than the external, which enhances the effect of the flower petals. After flowering, the flowering leaves turn green. Up to 6 flowers in each spike are usually inconspicuous, although there are species with more spectacular flowers (up to 7 cm). The heads of the inflorescences are dense, densely located, massive, although not the largest.
The nidularium is characterized by an amazing flowering time.
These plants can please with bright heads from spring to December, demonstrating an enviable resistance. Flowering periods may vary depending on the conditions of detention.
Unlike many bromeliads, the nidularium grows over time and forms the likeness of colonies - dense pillows of dozens of plants. He forms children in large numbers.
Types of nidulariums for growing in rooms
This amazing plant in nature is represented by more than two dozen species that are similar to each other in leaves, but differ in color of inflorescences. In a room culture, less than ten varieties of this plant are used.
Nidularium Innocent (Nidularium innocentii) - a beautiful view with variegated leaves. Leaves up to 30 cm long are wide, belt-shaped, with a bright green color and light longitudinal stripes, which appear unevenly. The serrated edge emphasizes the density of the rosette, while the spikes and stiffness of the leaves allow the plant to look even more severe. Young leaves are reddish. At the upper leaves, the tips redden before flowering. Nondescript white flowers in spikelet inflorescences are collected in complex heads hidden under bracts. Nidularium Innocent blooms from the beginning of summer to the beginning of winter.
Nidularium Magenta (Nidularium purpureum) - very similar to the previous view with narrower linear scaly leaves, preserving decorativeness regardless of the flowering cycle. The leaves turn red uneven, especially bright red color appears shortly before flowering. The flowers are beautiful, with red sepals and petals, up to 5 cm long, gathered in spikelets in the axils of large, reddish, broadly oval bracts. Purple nidularium can bloom in spring and summer.
Brilliant nidularium (Nidularium fulgens) - the most striking in appearance color of the nidulariums. The tropical and subtropical epiphyte is famous for its luxurious glossy leaves with a muffled, olive-green color and unevenly appearing bright spots that alternate at the top of the funnel with scarlet and purple blooms before flowering. The upper leaves are slightly shortened. This type of nidularium blooms from May to December, depending on growing conditions and lighting.
Nidularium bilberg-shaped (Nidularium billbergioides) - Brazilian endemic that grows well in tropical and subtropical climates. Epiphytic or semi-epiphytic with a beautiful rosette consisting of 10-16 long, narrow leaves. The length of the leaves is from 30 to 50 cm with a width of only 4 cm, it allows them to look very impressive. The funnel-shaped rosettes seem very neat due to the symmetrical structure and the pointed top of the leaves.
The bright green color is combined with a beautiful finely serrated edge, emphasizing the somewhat inflorescence color of these plants. Complex heads up to 8 cm long consist of sessile spikelets with half-fused greenish-white or red flowers, completely hidden in the axils of the lemon bracts. After flowering, the yellow stars of the inflorescences gradually turn green. This type of nidularium is able to bloom in May, July or December, depending on the conditions of wintering and lighting.
Nidularium high (Nidularium procerum) Is a very beautiful and popular plant. At a height of up to 50-70 cm, it creates a very dense, spectacular funnel of the outlet, sometimes consisting of more than 40 leaves. In length, leaves can exceed 60 cm with a width of up to 2.5 cm, they are linguistic-linear, with a narrowed base and a blunt or sharp tip, a typical finely serrated edge and spikes. The glossy texture is combined with a beautiful rich green color.
On short peduncles there are multifloral spikes with filmy-keeled bracts and large, up to 7 cm sessile flowers with white-blue petals. This nidularium usually blooms earlier than other species - either in April or in August. The decorative form Kermezan (kermesianum) differs from the base species in a bright burgundy color of leaves.
Nidularium Burchella (Nidularium burchellii) Is a medium-sized species up to 30 cm high, inferior to brothers in the number of leaves. Linguistic, with a sharp tip, from 20 cm to half a meter in length, they are collected in a funnel-shaped rosette and surprise with a serrated edge with noticeable spikes and a double color - green on the upper side of the leaf plates and dark cherry - on the lower. Rusty short peduncles bear almost sessile in the outlet, complex-capitate inflorescences with oval green bracts and plain flowers. This type of nidularium can also bloom either in May or at the beginning of winter.
Conditions for growing indoor nidulariums
Nidulariums are considered easy to grow plants. It’s quite simple to select the conditions for their cultivation: they do not require a strong decrease in temperature in winter, nor bright lighting, they adapt well to different rooms and different places.
Lighting and placement in the interior
The main advantage of nidulariums over competitors has always been considered their low light requirements. This plant can grow in different conditions, without losing its decorativeness, suitable for designing not only window sills (with the exception of northern windows), but also the space inside the interior.
Nidularia, thanks to beautiful leaves and austerity, look great in flower girls and flower boxes, complex compositions. They can be grown in greenhouses, and in florariums, and in gardens of bromeliads or flower showcases.
Nidulariums grow well in partial shade. They lose their beautiful colors in bright light, can not stand the direct sun. And in order for this bromeliad to fully reveal its beauty, it is worth it to choose a place inside the interior with moderate, dim lighting. In a strong shadow, the nidularium will not be able to grow normally, the degree of removal from the window is best selected according to the behavior of the plant, focusing on the growth rate and blanching of the leaves.
Correction of winter lighting for this bromeliad is desirable. Lighting should remain unchanged (taking into account the darker days in winter), the bushes are transferred to the windowsills, allocating space on the southern windows, if possible.
Temperature and ventilation
The growth of nidulariums completely stops in the winter. And at this time they need a cool period of rest. It is not necessary to create conditions typical of exotics for this plant: it is enough for it to lower the temperature by only a few degrees, from 18 to 20 degrees of heat. The minimum permissible temperature for this plant is 16 degrees, colder conditions are permissible only for a short period.
During the period of active development, nidulariums feel good at any room temperature. Minimum indicators - about 20 degrees of heat, maximum - about 26 degrees. During heat, nidulariums require very high levels of humidity.
Despite the unpretentiousness and status of a plant that is easy to grow, nidulariums unpleasantly surprise with their sensitivity to polluted air and drafts. Plants do not just suffer, but get sick when they are in constant contact with tobacco smoke, grown in the kitchen without good ventilation, or when placed in places with active movement of air flows.
Nidularium care at home
The most difficult thing to take care of nidularium is to maintain high levels of humidity. But since simple measures can be dispensed with, no difficulties should arise in this regard, even among inexperienced gardeners.
Watering and humidity
Like most bromeliads, nidulariums react very poorly to damp soil. The plant is watered with restraint, allowing the substrate to dry between these procedures. It is better to closely monitor the rate of drying of the soil. Water the plant with the classical method, and filling the funnel.
In spring and summer, only the second method is used. The funnel of leaves of nidulariums is filled at two-thirds of the height, keeping the water level constant. In winter, the plant is transferred to classical watering, the substrate is dried more and more, and the amount of water is limited. At temperatures below 20 degrees, you can spray instead of watering.
For nidularium, you can use only soft water with a temperature equal to air temperature or slightly warmer.
Nidulariums need at least average air humidity. The plant reacts poorly to the proximity of air conditioners or heating appliances, does not like sudden changes in conditions. It is possible, but not necessary, to increase humidity for nidulariums by installing humidifiers. Typically, such measures are taken if the plants are used in compositions or groups with other tropical bromeliads.
If nidulariums are grown in splendid isolation, it is enough to carry out regular spraying. Under normal conditions, spraying is carried out only in spring and summer. If the air is very dry in winter, and temperatures are 20 degrees or exceed this indicator, spraying is returned to the usual care program. For nidularium, preferably spraying up to 3 times a day.
The leaves of the plant should be regularly cleaned of dust using a damp cloth or sponge and gently rubbing the surface, being careful not to touch the serrated edge. On this plant, you can not use tools to give the leaves additional shine.
Fertilizing and fertilizer composition
For nidularia, top dressing is applied only during the period of active growth, from March to September. The standard frequency of 1 time in 2-3 weeks is quite suitable for this plant. Top dressing for this plant is applied only with water for irrigation, the preferred method is filling the outlet.
For nidularium, you can use universal complex fertilizer or special preparations for bromeliads. Fertilizer dosages recommended by the manufacturer are best halved. The plant is sensitive to excess nitrogen.
Transplant and substrate
A transplant for this bromeliad is done when the plant does not begin to develop where (the soil in the tank is fully utilized). Usually, nidulariums are transplanted with a frequency of 1 time in 2-3 years.
For this, plants select nutritious, loose, fairly moisture-intensive, high-quality soil mixtures. Nidularium can be grown not only in special soil for bromeliads, even though it remains the preferred option. If the soil is mixed independently, then it is prepared on the basis of turf soil, leaf soil, humus and sand in a ratio of 1: 1: 1: 0.5. Even in the purchased substrate for this plant, charcoal is added.
For nidulariums, you need to select medium-sized containers. Too much substrate with a compact root system of a plant almost always leads not only to problems with growth, but also to the spread of rot. Wide shallow pots are preferred.
When transplanting nidulariums, you need to carefully handle the plant and make sure that the root neck is not immersed in the soil. A very high drainage layer is laid at the bottom of the containers (optimal height is 1/3 of the tank height).
Diseases, pests and growing problems
Excessive watering and dampness are the most dangerous for nidularium. The plant dies very quickly from rot. If we are talking about a slight violation in the care, you can get by completely drying the substrate. If the situation is critical, the soil is swampy, it smells unpleasant, there are signs of mold development, an emergency transplant with damage treatment and preventive irrigation with a fungicide solution are necessary.
Of the pests on the nidularium, scale insects, spider mites, and aphids are found. Fight insect pests can only be treated with insecticides in combination with the removal of insects from the plant.
Common problems in growing nidulariums:
- drying of leaves at low humidity;
- the appearance of whitish spots in direct sunlight;
- drying the tips of the leaves when watering with hard water and drying the water in the outlet;
- lack of flowering in damp;
- twisting leaves in extremely dry air;
- sluggish, lost turgor leaves during overflow;
- blanching of leaves with waterlogging of the soil.
Propagation of nidularium
Like all bromeliads, the nidularium is easily propagated by simple separation of old plants that formed colonies, separation of individual daughter rosettes. The mother outlet dies after flowering, but the formed offspring develop very quickly.
You can separate outlets with at least 3-4 leaves and their root system.After planting, as a general rule, the nidularium sockets are kept in heat, at a temperature of about 27 degrees, under a cap or glass, gradually accustoming to the usual conditions of care after the start of growth.
If desired, you can grow this bromeliad from seeds, but they are rarely found on sale. Nidularium seeds are etched in a solution of potassium permanganate. Sowing is carried out in a sand-peat substrate or chopped moss, under glass or film. At a temperature of about 23 degrees, with frequent spraying or airing, seedlings are grown for 2 to 3 months and dive into large flat containers.
They are transferred to individual containers only when they get stronger, on average after 6-8 months. Flowering nidulariums need to wait only from the fourth year.